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The Apennines are very various on the geological structure and a relief. Mountains in Tuscany, the central Apennines, Campaign and Brazilikat are put by conglomerates, sandstones and limestones, and also clay slates and marble. To the south in Calabria they are put ancient, a volcanic origin, and metamorphic breeds. The same breeds are characteristic and for the mountains of Sicily and Sardinia.

More than 12% of the population of all country are concentrated in 4 largest cities, each of which has more than 1 million inhabitants, - Rome (2,9 million), Milan (1,7 million), Naples (1,2 million) and Turin (1,1 million). more than a half of all large cities is in Northern Italy. For Italy, especially for the North and the Center, the dense network of the small cities (10-30 thousand inhabitants) is characteristic.

Official language - Italian. It belongs to Romance group of Indo-European languages. All variety of the Italian dialects can be reduced in three large groups: dialects of Northern, Central and Southern Italy.

Subsoil of Italy is rich with construction materials - marble, granite, travertine, etc. In Carrara (Toskan is got the well-known white Carrara marble which else was used by ancient Romans for creation of many sculptures and finishing of buildings. Today, it not only is used in the country, but also goes for export.

The left inflows On flow down from the Alps, and right - from the Apennines. The left inflows eat mainly thawed glacial snow in the summer. Apenninsky inflows On - the small rough mountain rivers the deepest in the spring when snow thaws and go plentiful rains, and in the rainy fall.

Italy - one of the densely populated countries of Europe. Placement of the population is influenced by intensively proceeding process of an urbanization. The main part of urban population is concentrated in Northern Italy. The majority of the cities of Italy arose in the ancient and Middle Ages. They are world-renowned as peculiar historical museums with architectural ancient monuments and works of art. Rome, Florence, Venice, Milan, Genoa, Bologna are distinguished from them.

Energy resources of Italy satisfy her needs for energy only for 15%. In Sardinia, Tuscany, Umbria, Calabria there are fields of brown and low-quality coal. Limited oil stocks on the island of Sicily, the Padansky plain and on east coast of the Central Italy provide less than 2% of need of Italy for oil. Are very important for national economy of a natural gas field of the Padansky plain and its underwater continuation - the continental shelf of the Adriatic Sea, and also natural gas is found in the Northern, Central and the Southern Apennines and on Sicily.

The Mediterranean climate is distinctly expressed in the south of the Apenninsky peninsula and on islands. Summer here dry and hot (average temperature of July - +26 °), winter soft, warm (average temperature of January - +8-10 °). In northern and central parts of the Apenninsky peninsula average temperatures others - +24 ° in July and +1,4-4 ° in January. Snow on the Apenninsky peninsula drops out very seldom. From March to October in the south of Italy blows - the dry and hot wind from Africa bringing temperature increase to +30-35 ° and reddish dust.

They are replaced by the Alpine meadows. Especially the Alps are famous for rich and juicy mountain meadows. Mountain meadows are used as summer pastures. Above mountain meadows to the tops or glaciers slopes are covered with mosses and lichens. In the Apennines more often than in the Alps, naked slopes - result of deforestation, an erosion and landslides come across.

One of most characteristics of the nature of the country - broad development of volcanic and seismic processes, and also modern movements of the sushi caused by that Italy is located in a zone of a young Alpine skladchatost.

The Italian rivers are used long ago by the person for electricity generation, supply with water of settlements and the industrial enterprises, and also in small sizes - for navigation. More than 60% of the general reserves of hydroenergy resources of Italy with concentration in the Alps. Practically all these resources are already used by the available hydroelectric power stations.